Java was formulated and developed at Sun Microsystems in 1991. A research team led by James Gosling and Patrick Naughton conceived the idea of developing a programming language that requires lesser memory space and could be used to develop applications to run on different platforms and Operating systems. Java was initially christened as “Oak”. It got its new name “Java” in 1995. Java features are similar to many features of C++, but Java is better since it is platform independent due to compilation of source code into Bytecode. Unlike C++ does not have complexity due to lack of pointers. Java programs can be created as applets or applications ready to be executed on any machine having Java virtual machine.
Java Features which make it better than its Competitor Programming Languages.
- Java is pure object-oriented programming language. It allows the programs to be coded the way real-life events and objects behave.
- Java does not have pointers, related operations and memory management activities. So the programs are robust without having to handle the pointer related issues like garbage values and illegal addresses.
- The java interpreter working on Bytecode generated after compilation helps is speedier application development and portability of applications across platforms and OSs.
- Code portability engages the underlying operating systems to invoke system calls for the Java runtime environment.
- Implements multithreading in programs to execute more than one unit of execution to speed up program execution.
Java allows the programmers to create programs on the principles of Object-Oriented Paradigm. The focus stays on objects and the interfaces not on modularity through functions like C++. Java does not allow any program to be created without a class. The main function must be enclosed in a class and the object file must have same name as that of the main class of a java program. Nothing in java code file exists outside a class.
Dynamic programming is the concept used to dynamically link to the required code according to the decision taken while program execution. In Java the programs are created to have run-time information to resolve access to objects at run time. This is another reason for creation of secure Java applications
This is one of the best Java features. Java programming is easy to learn and code to build simple to high-end applications. Java applications can be run on individual machines or a network of computers with equal ease.
The graduation of applications from stand alone programs to multi-platform applications needs them to run reliably on any possible platform. Java programs are robust since the errors are reported at compilation and at runtime checking. This two stage checking reduces all chances of errors.
Once the source code is compiled it converts to Bytecode. It can be interpreted on any system having a Java Virtual Machine. This ability of JVM to convert the Bytecode into machine code at run time on any specific computer according to the instruction set of its CPU is the reason for high performance of Java applications. The compilation of source code is in an interpreted environment. It helps in easy debugging since programmer knows the exact line number where the code file has an error.
Java programs can be created on any platform and run on any other machine having a JVM. This independence is available at the source code level as well as at the binary level.
Java is known to be the most secured programming language. The java programs are confined to the Java Runtime Environment. JRE works like a firewall between the multi-user application running in a network and the computer. This arrangement inhibits all threats in form of virus or worm on a user’s computer.
Simultaneously running of independent activities of an application improves its performance. In Java this is implemented as multithreading. Java allows the programmer to create simultaneous lightweight processes called threads within a program. These threads are executed simultaneously reducing overall execution time of program. It is also beneficial in running background processes while an application interacts with a user. It is especially helpful in web based applications that need real time interactivity and responsiveness.
In the era of Internet, applications need to run in distributed environment. This is possible in java applications since the programmer can use the TCP/IP protocols in the code. Java offers Remote Method Invocation (RMI) package to implement such interfaces in a multi-user application.